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Portsmouth Sustainable Energy & Climate Change Centre - PSECC

Facilitaors for Climate Change Mitigation  - Renewable Energy Technologies, Advice, Grants & funding.

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PSECC has been formed to provide advice, support and guidance on Climate Change, Global Warming, Renewable Energy, Grants and Funding provision for the people of Portsmouth, Portsmouth & Hampshire Council’s, Governments, schools, colleges, Commercial & International clients. 

Do not leave Global Warming to others, we must do more, energy efficiency also Renewable Energy - Solar PV, Biomass, Wind & Water Turbines, Carbon Capture & Storage & Nuclear, do we risk limited action, can we take the risk?? NO

Welcome .....  PSECC is a not for profit organization - Facilitators in Climate Change Mitigation.

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Background Information

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Home - Infinite Energy Development Limited (IEDL)

[www.kenyalight.uwclub.net

Global Warming is still happening, confusion does exist in the detail, but reality is still warming.

PSECC are able to assist in Climate Change Mitigation- we have a consortium of companies brought together, as a result of our Hampshire County Council work in Energy coordination for Renewable Energy technology project development purposes and also offer funding options - Energy Savings & Resource Ownership Loans to make possible project development and bring much needed revenues to the client from Feed-In-Tariffs (FIT’s).

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Kenyalight being advised by UNEP - REPP  for Kenya & Kenyalight Project Ltd.

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Call

07763-977634

How does the climate system work? - YouTube

 BBC THE TRUTH ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE PART 2 - YouTube

Kirsty Lewis at the launch of the 4 degrees mapby energyclimatechange1,202 views

We provide:

Funding

Installation

Advice

Cut CO2 emissions

reduce Global Warming  & Climate Change

  • Resource Ownership Concept - Clients  such as Portsmouth City Council & Havant Borough Council “OWN THE RESOURCES WITHIN YOUR BOUNDARY” - Revenue generation through Resource Ownership & project funding can be supplied via PSECC if required.
  • As Portsmouth develop Renewable energy such as Solar PV it is important that this development is truly Sustainable. The “Resource Ownership” concept could enable long term Sustainable Energy for the Country and not just exploited by quick buck companies. - a concept developed by Alan.J.Brewer MSc. over 18 years of PSECC’s work - a concept whereby a City can receive extra funding from Renewable Energy generation by owning such things as Solar Farms & Wind turbines. The revenue will come from the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) paid per KW generated   $millions..   GOVERNMENT OWN THE RESOURCES WITHIN YOUR BOUNDARY,  PSECC can assist in raising all funding required for such development as Solar Farms and Wind Turbines to be owned by the Government. Any costs associated with a Solar Farm Water Turbines or Wind Turbines are paid back from the FIT so there is no requirement for funding or cash outlay from Governments - PSECC supply Energy Savings & Resource Ownership loans in the UK.

Solar for Homes, Schools and Commercial Clients

Cut those Energy Bills Energy Efficiency & make extra revenue from Solar PV !!!!

Save on Energy Bills and also receive full revenue from Solar PV Feed-In-Tariff - funding available

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Solar PV

Solar Thermal

Biomass

CHP

Ground source heat Pumps

Air source heat Pumps

Wind Turbines

Water Turbines

Energy Efficiency

Waste Management

Solar PV can add more than 14% to property value (source: Department of Energy and Climate Change

New research published by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has revealed that energy saving improvements could add significant value to properties across England.

According to DECC, improving a property’s EPC rating from band G to E or from band D to B could add more than £16,000 to the sale price of the average property in England.

PSECC facilitate change -

We offer a service in the Climate Change Renewable Energy sector.

 

We arrange for & complete:

Renewable Energy Surveys

Funding Options

Detailed Renewable Energy reports indicating technical options, funding options and revenues to be expected by the adoption of renewable energies.

Update on ISES

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - ipcc

Provision of Solar lighting to kenyan peoplee

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Energy Policy & Strategy

Waste Policy & Strategy

It’s not just Polar Bears at Risk and dying but Humans too are dying due to Climate Change.

Latest:

Film | Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay

IPCC climate report: humans 'dominant cause' of warming

Global Warming - a recent September 2013 IPCC report indicates that Warming has not occurred since 1998 - the UK Met office in July 2013 insist that warming continues, please go to Global Warming section. Confusion does exist in the detail of the warming, however Global Warming is still happening due to man’s activity.  Please go to the Global Warming section of this website for more details on the IPCC recent report 27th Sep 3012 & MET Office response.

“Sustainable Development” - Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations meeting their own needs. PSECC think we all have been compromised!!

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As ice caps melt there is a danger that the ocean conveyor system will close down resulting in more Hurricans, Tornadoes over land mass and not just over the sea, sea level rises and the balance of fresh water and sea water alters resulting in a desalination and major climate shift. Storm surges could result and a “Super Storm” results in pulling down much colder air resulting in much of the Worlds land mass being under thick belts of snow & ice, another ice age.

Portsmouth City Council are infact driving forward initiatives for others to obtain grants & funding for Environmental Renewables action and are a point of reference for SLEP & PUSH - organisations set up to assist local sustainable growth and to promote Renewable Energy & assist with business grants & funding - WHY are they not doing more in their own City with developing wide spread renewable energies such as Solar PV for all their Council Housing stock and also having Tidal Turbines..

Global Warming - a recent September 2013 IPCC report indicates that Warming has not occurred since 1998 - the UK Met office in July 2013 insist that warming continues, please go to Global Warming section. Confusion does exist in the detail of the warming, however Global Warming is still happening due to man’s activity.  Please go to the Global Warming section of this website for more details on the IPCC recent report 27th Sep 3012 & MET Office response.

Portsmouth City Council do an excellent job of Energy Efficiency for the people of Portsmouth but could do more and have Renewable Energy generated in or around the City from Solar Farms, Tidal, Biomass, Wind and Solar. The “Resource Ownership” concept developed by PSECC from our work with Hampshire County Council - could enable extra revenues for the City Council if they owned the Energy Plants.  If at times Global Warming seems too complicated to   understand and fix - humans can overcome all perceived problems, real or imaginary!! Councils in the UK need to do more! Portsmouth city Council is infact a point of reference for SLEP & PUSH - organisations set up to assist local sustainable growth and to promote Renewable Energy & assist with business grants & funding.

ILUMINATE  KENYA

Kenyalight Project

SunnyMoney – SolarAid's social enterprise selling solar lights in Africa

www.sunnymoney.org/ Kenya. SunnyMoney sells a range of high quality solar lights. For general ... Solar power is reliable power that saves you money, improves health, betters ...

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Caroline Mwai

Leagl Secretary Kenyalight - PSECC Nairobi Office

www,iedl.org

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Alan.J.Brewer MSc - obtained from Portsmouth University

Educated - Portsmouth University, Plymouth University and Southampton University - ITCERES placement.

City Energy Policy, County Energy Strategy & UK Country Waste Strategy< International Business Development.

BREEAM Global trained.- Optimistic

The above graph, in easy to understand terms - many people believe that Global Warming has always occured, which IS TRUE, however NEVER at such a rate as from Industrial Revolution period & early 1900’s, population growth through to current times due to man’s energy use activity and influence on the planet.

PSECC have been asked to input into the UNEP & EIB Renewable Energy for  REPP in Kenya - £20m

also Alan Brewer was asked to Coordiante Energy Network for Hampshire County Council HNRI programme and by Defence Estates to design and cost Renewable Energy initiatives for the Aldershot Urban Extension.

PSECC were asked by Hampshire County Council to Investigate Renewable Energy for Hampshire Schools

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 BBC THE TRUTH ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE PART 1 - YouTube

 BBC THE TRUTH ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE PART 2 - YouTube

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As ice caps melt there is a danger that the ocean conveyor system will close down resulting in more Hurricans, Tornadoes over land mass and not just over the sea, sea level rises and the balance of fresh water and sea water alters resulting in a desalination and major climate shift. Storm surges could result and a “Super Storm” results in pulling down much colder air resulting in much of the Worlds land mass being under thick belts of snow & ice, another ice age.

Home - Climate Crisis www.climatecrisis.netA PLAN to Solve the Climate Crisis. Al Gore's new book is an inspiring call to action for those ready to fight for solutions to save the Earth's climate. 1 2 3 ...

The Gulf Stream and the Next Ice Age - Future Focus Episode 2013 ... www.youtube.com/watch?v=SyAEucg6teg 10 Mar 2013 - Uploaded by OccupyNWO

~Chemtrails connected to UN 2013 Report

PSECC’s work in Kenya with partners - development commenced 2012 to current time - ongoing.

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ILUMINATE  KENYA

PSECC - Kenya.org and parent organisation PSECC in the UK have been asked by the UN Bankers in Nairobi to put forward ideas for First Mover funding - Kenyalight is one of those ideas and is being developed currently. Also we are requesting from Kiva in USA that we are considered for status of Kiva Field Partners for Kenyalight - Solar for the people of Kenya.

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PSECC_KENYA- Kenyalight - Home

www.psecc-kenya.org/html/kenyalight.html

16 Jul 2013 - UNEP - Renewable Energy Performance Platform - PSECC have approached Kiva in the USA for for consideration for Field Partner status, SMEP of Kenya will administer loans.

www.kenyalight.uwclub.net & www.psecc-kenya.org

Climate Change is a real issue affecting much of the World. Kenya, like other Global Countries have issues with Climate Change & Global Warming...PSECC-Kenya assists UN  and are being assisted by the UN appointed Frankfurt Bank in Nairobi with First Mover project consideration.

 Rural Energy Foundation,Sub-Saharan Africa... - Ashden Awards

1.   Solar Cooking in Africa - A Remarkable Technology Transfer ... www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZWIpKRuur0

29 Jul 2010 - Uploaded by Patricia McArdle

This video shows the remarkable technology transfer that is taking place in Africa as thousands of people are ...

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Kenyalight being considered for UNEP - REPP funding for Kenya Project.

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  • Resource Ownership Concept - GOVERNMENT OWN THE RESOURCES WITHIN YOUR BOUNDARY - Revenue generation through Resource Ownership & project funding can be supplied via PSECC if required.
  • As Portsmouth develop Renewable energy such as Solar PV it is important that this development is truly Sustainable. The “Resource Ownership” concept could enable long term Sustainable Energy for the Country and not just exploited by quick buck companies. - a concept developed by Alan.J.Brewer MSc. over 18 years of PSECC’s work - a concept whereby a City can receive extra funding from Renewable Energy generation by owning such things as Solar Farms & Wind turbines. The revenue will come from the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) paid per KW generated   $millions..   GOVERNMENT OWN THE RESOURCES WITHIN YOUR BOUNDARY,  PSECC can assist in raising all funding required for such development as Solar Farms and Wind Turbines to be owned by the Government. Any costs associated with a Solar Farm Water Turbines or Wind Turbines are paid back from the FIT so there is no requirement for funding or cash outlay from Governments - PSECC supply Energy Savings & Resource Ownership loans in the UK.
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1.   Film | Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay

www.tidallagoonswanseabay.com/film.aspx

Project Film for Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay. Our vision is to see the UK's abundant sustainable tidal resource help us towards greater energy security, whilst  ...

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  ITER - the way to new energy

www.iter.org/

 ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the "tokamak" concept. 

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The ITER Story
Fossil fuels were the energy source that shaped 19th and 20th century civilization. But burning coal, oil and gas has proved highly damaging to our environment.

Carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse effect gases, and fumes all contribute to the disruption in the balance of our planet's climate.

Global energy consumption is set to triple by the end of the century. And yet supplies of fossil fuels are depleting and the environmental consequences of their

exploitation are serious. Two questions loom over humanity today: how will we supply all this new energy, and how can we do so without adding dangerously to

atmospheric greenhouse gases? No single nation can face these challenges alone.

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Let not old soldiers have died in vain - protect our World & Portsmouth against Climate Change.

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The people of Portsmouth could have Renewable Energy generated in or around the City from  Tidal, Biomass, Wind and Solar.

Portsmouth, like other Global Cities have issues with Climate Change, Global Warming & Sustainable Development . As the Earth warms more and more, seas get hotter and more precipitation occurs, Jet Stream erratic movements, increased flooding on a Global basis results as man has developed, industrialized and populations increase. More moisture and warmth in the summer months result in more Tornadoes in the UK. In time if Climate Change continues as this rate and Global Warming occurs, Super Cell Storms then occur, colder air is drawn down from the upper atmosphere and the rain will turn to snow, covering much of the Northern hemisphere. Yes their has always been times of Global Warming and Climate Change, BUT NEVER as quick and as dramatic together with exponentially as in modern times. For our Children’s Children please act now.

PSECC are facilitators & Project Managers, staff have eighteen years experience in the Sustainable Energy Policy & Strategy field together with developing and funding Renewable Energy projects, Integrated Waste Management and Climate Change Mitigation.  

Portsmouth City Council, like many Council’s have failed to understand that Renewable Energy such as Solar PV, if installed the feed-In-Tariff revenue will allow for further Energy Efficiency measures to take place, Energy Efficiency on its own is not a strong enough measure to mitigate against Climate change. Their Energy from Waste plant has a one off gain in energy and PCC should have built an Integrated Waste management Plant - continually recycling and reusing waste.

Solar PV No costs outlay to clients - “Energy Savings & Resource Ownership” scheme, loans that pay for themselves.  PSECC have developed the above loan scheme made possible by the UK Government Feed-In-Tariff (FIT.) PSECC can offer a better deal than the Green Deal.

Portsmouth City Council were offered by PSECC “No Cost Outlay” Solar PV installations for all Council Housing stock and they refused leaving many in fuel poverty. The Council would also have received all FIT payments.

We have been responsible for research into Energy Policy & Strategy for Councils and the UK Government and the establishment of the first commercial environmental Energy forum in Hampshire (the BEF). We wish to introduce the “Resource Ownership” concept to clients and the Councils such as Portsmouth. This concept will result in the Council receiving revenue streams, which could run into £10’s of millions, without the need to provide funding, from Renewable Energy projects leading to long term sustainable development. We still recommend that PCC do this.

 

Energy Savings & Resource Ownership loan - no cost outlay for Solar PV - Full Feed-In-Tariff retained by clients!!. FIT’s - the establishment of a technology payment system from the UK Government Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) scheme that will provide payments per KW for Renewable Energy generated from Solar PV, Biomass Energy Crops, Groundsource Heat Pumps, Geothermal, Wind, EFW and Hyrdo Electricity. The client pays off technologies such as Solar PV panels from the FIT’s and retains the remainder of the revenues, generating additional savings and financial revenues over a twenty year. period. Links to the UK Green Investment Bank, Triodos Bank, Solent Green Fund, Green Investment Bank and Solar Selections Ltd.

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BuiltWithNOF

PSECC offer a Solar Tender Management Service for clients like Highcross & Lakeside through their appointed company Solar Selections Ltd

Useful information -

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Pay for themselves Resource Ownership loans  for clients such as Lakeside & owners Highcross- Councils, private residents, Council tenants, Industry & Commerce together with schools and colleges for all renewable energy technologies such as Solar PV & Thermal, Heat pumps, wind turbines and biomass energy plants. Full FIT’s retained by clients!!

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Climate Change Education.org

www.climatechangeeducation.org

climate change education, schools, lesson plans, Climate Change Education .Org: Portal Web Site Dedicated to: Global Warming Education Climate Change ...

Useful websites & videos

Global Warming

Kirsty Lewis at the launch of the 4 degrees mapby energyclimatechange1,202 views

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - ipcc

PSECC Climate Change link for children Climate Change For Kids | GlobalWarmingKids.net

Home - Climate Crisis www.climatecrisis.netA PLAN to Solve the Climate Crisis. Al Gore's new book is an inspiring call to action for those ready to fight for solutions to save the Earth's climate. 1 2 3 ...

Videos

Update on ISES

SunnyMoney – SolarAid's social enterprise selling solar lights in Africa

www.sunnymoney.org/ Kenya. SunnyMoney sells a range of high quality solar lights. For general ... Solar power is reliable power that saves you money, improves health, betters ...

Solar for Africa Blog | Small solar lights are set to transform the way ...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=caBpi46LQvs&feature=player_embedded

1.   UK greenhouse gas emissions statistics coverage ... - Gov.uk https://www.gov.uk/uk-greenhouse-gas-emissions

18 Oct 2012 - UK National Statistics - The geographical coverage of these statistics is based on the UK and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey ...

Tidal Power - Portsmouth has a great tidal range and potential for Tidal power

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1.   Film | Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay

www.tidallagoonswanseabay.com/film.aspx

Project Film for Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay. Our vision is to see the UK's abundant sustainable tidal resource help us towards greater energy security, whilst  ...

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Solar PV Farms - we are to develop solar farms in Kenya - Portsmouth City Council should consider owning solar Farms & receive £ millions in revenue - “Resource Ownership” concept.

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Revenues could be obtained from Council owned Solar Farms.

Harnessing the ocean’s tides for commercial scale water turbines from Marine Current Turbines Ltd also Tidal Lagoon Ltd predictable, cost-competitive renewable electric power.

Tidal Electric Ltd company in the UK

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A Farmer or Landowner could receive £800 per acre per year for 25 years to be paid to them for renting their land for a Solar Farm.

If you wish to extend to another 25 years a 50% share each year will be paid to you amounting to about £200,000 per year, for a 5 MW - 30 acre site for another 25 years = £5 million.

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The client pays off technology costs such as Solar PV panels from the FIT’s and retains the remainder, generating additional savings and financial revenues over a twenty year period. .

PSECC would like to assist the Council of :Portsmouth with Solar PV systems to be made available to all Council tenants, especially in Leigh Park, West Leigh & Paulsgrove areas funded via PSECC.

The UK Government have set up a Feed-In-Tariff (FIT), which allows payments to be made for each Kilowatt of electricity generated from renewable energy technologies such as Solar PV. PSECC “Do Not” recommend the Free Solar PV offers that many Solar companies are offering Private Tenants & commercial clients. The reason for this is that before December 2011 Solar PV companies will benefit more than the clients in receiving this FIT payment, for example a 50KW system would generate approximately £400,000 over a twenty year period and once the cost of the installation, typically £85,000 has been paid off after seven years the Solar company will receive the remaining FIT’s.

A Private Resident would have a system installed at a typical cost of £7,000 and loose out on approximately £12,000 from FIT’s over the twenty year period

Leigh Park Houses
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All Councils have no excuse not to make dramatic changes in the Climate Change arena. Funds exists in the internal market place of the UK, EU and World Bank. Portsmouth City Council should be doing more for it’s public and Council tenants. An excuse of not having funds is now not an option to put off much needed Climate Change Mitigationing an income from renewable energy projects.

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Alan Brewer founder of kenyalight project

PSECC - Kenya and parent ILUMEXICO & organisation PSECC in the UK are requesting from Kiva in USA that we are considered for status of Kiva Field Partners for Kenyalight & USAID funding together with UNEP REPP funding.

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A $400,000 project instigated by PSECC

Kenyalight

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Caroline Mwai

Leagl Director Kenyalight - PSECC Nairobi Office

Any questions about the kenyalight - Ngong trial then please contact me - caroline-kenyalight@uwclub.net

UNEP - United Nations Environmental Programme

PSECC have been asked to provide renewable Energy projects for consideration under UNEP in Kenya and the Renewable Energy Performance Platform - REPP

 Rural Energy Foundation,Sub-Saharan Africa... - Ashden Awards

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=caBpi46LQvs&feature=player_embedded

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Bob Lisney OBE, right of centre - Director of the HCC HNRI programme at the HNRI launch above - appointed Alan Brewer to be the HNRI Energy Coordinator in 2002 - Alan had City Energy Policy, County Energy Strategy & UK Country Waste Strategy experience.

PSECC & NHS Trust work, together with the Kenyalight project have been formed as a result of the ongoing HNRI work performed by Alan Brewer.  Experiences gained may well be of some use to NHS Trust Hospitals and other commercial clients in their pursuit of a Low Carbon future, extra revenue streams and combating Climate Change & Global Warming.

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Prince Charles’s project management team had assisted Alan with the HCC Schools Renewable Energy programme, in particular Mountbatten School in Ringwood & funding consideration for Solar PV..

Bob Lisney OBE, right of centre

Joe Mwai & colleagues - Joe & Alan Brewer MSc - founders of Kenyalight

Alan Brewer MSc

Home - Climate Crisis www.climatecrisis.netA PLAN to Solve the Climate Crisis. Al Gore's new book is an inspiring call to
action for those ready to fight for solutions to save the Earth's climate. 1 2 3 ...

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We must resolve Climate Change for our children & their children’s children.

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Water Turbines

Film | Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay

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Revenues could be obtained from Council owned Water Turbines.

Harnessing the ocean’s tides for commercial scale water turbines- Marine Current Turbines Ltd, predictable, cost-competitive renewable electric power.

Tidal Electric Ltd company in the UK

Isle of Wight - wish to become a Sustainable Energy Island

In 2003 PSECC gave a report to the Island council indicating how the Island could eventually become sustainable in energy terms.

Water & Wind Power

Film | Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay

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Prince Charles’s project management team had assisted Alan Brewer of PSECC with the HCC Schools Renewable Energy programme, in particular Mountbatten School in Ringwood & funding consideration for Solar PV.

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PSECC - HCC Schools installed with Solar & funding by PSECC:

Ringwood

Mountbatten

Hounsdown

Warren Park

Perins

Mark Rutherfor

&

feasibility studies performed for 200 more UK schools

 

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=caBpi46LQvs&feature=player_embedded

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Biomass Energy Crops - PSECC had worked for four years with HCC and also Farmers in the Hook area of Hampshire in order for them to consider growing Energy Crops - not deemed viable for HNRI & HCC to sponser a feasibility Study due to lack of real interest on the part of HNRI. Our expert partner Dr Michael Mos has indicated that Framers may reconsider when Seeds are avilable for Miscanthus Grass - Energy Crop - less cost for establishing a crop.

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For Kenya - establishment of this Energy Crop in 2014 / 2015 onwards by PSECC’s partners Dr Michael Mos of Energene  will be possible by seeds and not Rhizomes reducing plantings costs to at least half that of Rhizomes with no Import / Export problems.

Energy Crops Data

crop planting
energy crop chart

Biomass Energy Plant

renewable energy plant
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SDU are including PSECC’s case study on Solar PV and funding in their News Letter to all other NHS Trusts in England.

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Integrated Waste Management Plants - MSW

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Speculative proposals were being made to Glen Hewlette the Director of QA Hosapital for consideration, Glen Retired at the end of August so discussions will continue with John Acourt.

There are complication due to QA Hospital is a PFI - but PSECC believe problems can be overcome.

Latest Reference for PSECC work

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PSECC make move into waste management was to indicate repeated reuse of Energy bt Recycling. Also to indicate to the Waste Management sector that Integrated Waste Management untilising full recycle, reuse and reduction of waste is  a far better choice than mass burn EFW such as passed by Portsmouth Planners and Waste Staff at PCC. EFW is NOT SUSTAINABLE and has a one off gain as compared to recycling that has numerous on going gains in energy reuse.

 - PSECC staff were responsible for International feasibility studies for Gdansk, Moscow, Sofia, Mumbai, Edinburgh & Hong Kong.

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PSECC formed partnerships with Japanease and Austrian and UK companies to provide upto 93% recycling and reuse of MSW. PSECC also provided funding.

     WASTE

   Reduction

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  Reuse

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 Recovery

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Recycle, EFW, Composting

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Landfill

PSECC had meetings at Winchester regading the proposed EcoPark.and offered suggestions.

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Energy From the Oceans

Integrated Waste Management Plants

Reduction - to landfill by up to 90%

Reuse - of resources for new goods

Recovery - metals, plastics, organics

Recycle - glass, organics

EFW - paper, card, some plastics

Composting - organics

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Energy From the Oceans

Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion

 

The oceans are a huge heat engine. Temperature differences, caused by differences in insolation both in latitude and in depth. More promising technology is OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Generation). This takes advantage of the fact that the ocean is an enormous heat engine.

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This in fact is a "global solution" and represents a chance for the world to collaborate on varions infrastructure and production facilities.

Physics of Heat Engines:

  • efficiency = work done/energy input
  • it can be shown that this is equivalent to

efficiency (in %) = 1 - T1/T2 ; T1 < T2

T is measured in Kelvins

  • So, in principle any two reservoirs with different temperatures T1 and T2 can produce energy. There will be a demonstration of this principle in class today.
    • Boiling water T = 373K
    • Ice Water T=273K
    • Liquid Nitrogen T=77K
  • Efficiency of Boiling water and Ice water: 1 - (273/373) = 27%
  • Efficienty of Ice water and LN2: 1 - (77/273) = 72%
  • What is efficiency of Boiling water and LN2?

Thermodynamic Constraints:

  • Systems are in equilibrium when they are at the same temperature
  • energy is conserved within a closed system
  • it is not possible to extract heat energy from a reservoir and perform work without transferring heat to a reservoir of lower temperature. In other words, all thermodynamic systems must tend towards equilibrium. Some energy goes towards performing work and some is lost as waste heat.

To get the highest efficiency one wants to maximize the difference between T1 and T2 but in most natural environments nature doesn't really do this.

Do this:

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Basic principle is that heat difference is used to condense a steam into a liquid then return it to be reheated.

Since heat differences in the ocean will be smaller, then one must substitute ammonia for water as the working fluid.

 

Tidal Energy from the Ocean

 

Extracts energy from the kinetic energy of the earth-moon-sun system.

Variations in water level along coastlines can be used to drive turbines technology is the same as low-head hydro power

Vertical tides on US coast range from 2 feet in Florida to more than 18 feet in Maine

To enhance efficiency of turbines driven by tidal currents, it is desireable to build a damlike structure across the mouth of a tidal basin in order to direct the flow to a turbine

Turbines designed for work at both high and low tide (inflow or outflow)

Intermittent tidal flow is major problem. Tidal facility produces about 1/3 the electrical energy of a hydro facility of the same peak capacity

Two tidal plants in the world:

  • 1 MW facility on the White Sea in Russia (1969)
  • 240-MW on the Rance River, St. Malo France (1967) has 750 meter long dike to impound tides that can be as high as 13 meters (!)

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Proposed New Facilities:

Potential Sites in the US

 

 

  • Bay of Funday (US-Canadian Border; NE Coast of US) most favorable site in the World would produce about 30,000 MW in total (1/2 for the US)


Tidal difference in Bay of Fundy

 

  • A 1 MW demonstration plant has been built here - near Annapolis, Nova Scotia
  • Locally (New England) this is a potential important source of power but on national scale is just a few percent of our (insatiable) need for power

Bottom Line: There aren't many favorable sites in the world for tidal power and the estimated capacity is 50 times smaller than the world's hydroelectric power capacity.

 

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